Eugene Lee-Hamilton and the Paris Commune: letters to his family

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UPDATE: IVLS annual event: Humanism and Freethought with Humanists UK

Portrait of Clementina Anstruther-Thomson by John Singer Sargent, 1889

Dear readers, followers and friends,

Yesterday was Violet Paget’s birthday. Born on 14th of October 1856 at Château St Léonard, Boulogne-sur-mer, she would have been 165 this year. When she was born, the doctor congratulated her mother with a typical understatement: “Madame, je n’ai rien à vous reprocher !” (Madam, I’ve nothing to blame you for)

Like every year since 2013, October 14 also marks our annual event, the 8th one since the creation of International Vernon Lee Society –doesn’t time fly! While we may be sorry we have to meet online again owing to sanitary restrictions, it cannot be denied that such cyber meetings do allow scattered Vernon Lee scholars like us to gather in a single, although virtual, place. And the general meeting of the IVLS will also be held online on October 26, with, hopefully, good news about our 2022 activities.

Now, 2021 also marks two important anniversaries. First, it is the centenary of the death of the humanist and art theoretician Clementina Anstruther-Thomson. The IVLS felt we must pay a tribute to the woman who was Vernon Lee’s long time partner and much else besides in her own right, quite apart from her romantic friendship for Lee.

Indeed, “Kit” Anstruther-Thomson belonged to the West London Ethical Society, and 2021 also happens to be the one hundred and twenty-fifth anniversary of our partner association, Humanists UK founded in 1896 as the union of Ethical Societies. Our invited speaker, historian Madeleine Goodall, is a researcher in community history, the history of humanism and of the West London Ethical Society. She is the Humanist Heritage Coordinator for Humanists UK, researching and writing to celebrate the organisation’s 125th birthday, and has published an important article which attracted our attention: « Heroines of freethought: women of the early humanist movement » (Nov. 2020). She has developped the very resourceful website Humanist Heritage.

Madeleine Goodall’s lecture can be viewed here: “‘A Hundred Ways Other People Wouldn’t”: the Humanism of Clementina Anstruther-Thomson”.

The voice recording is accessible in mp4 format here.

We are particularly grateful for the members of Humanists UK for generously sharing their celebration with us. All the more so as their values and struggles have always been consistent with those that led to the Law of December 9, 1905 (Separation of church and state) in France.

“The freedom to think for ourselves is at the heart of the humanist philosophy, and humanists and freethinkers have long defended the right to do so, often in the face of significant persecution. The history of the humanist tendency contains the stories of many labelled heretics, infidels, or blasphemers, for pursuing their own reason and challenging the authority of the Church.”

Today, when France is mourning for the barbaric murder of Samuel Paty, who taught History and Geography in Conflans Sainte Honorine and was decapitated for teaching secularism and freedom of belief (laïcité), freedom of speech and freedom of thought in accordance to the values and the rules of secular public education in France, we express our sympathy for our colleague’s family, friends and colleagues.

“The humanist commitment to reason, kindness, inclusivity, and freedom of thought, means the non-religious have always been the natural allies of education, whether under the label of ‘freethinkers’, ‘rationalists’, or ‘humanists’.”

This year’s event would have been impossible without the involvement and brilliant suggestions of our communications officer, Dr. Sally Blackburn-Daniels or without computing engineer Richard Walter’s continued help and support as coordinator of the EMAN digital humanities platform at the UMR “Théorie et histoire des arts et des littératures de la modernité”, THALIM-CNRS-ENS-Université Sorbonne Nouvelle, who must be thanked for hosting this Zoom session. Warmest thanks are due to them all.

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The Italian translation of Satan the Waster: Satana il Dilapidore

We are delighted to showcase the first translation into Italian of Vernon Lee’s philosophical trilogy, Satan the Waster (1920).

Satana Il Dilapidore. Trilogia filosofica della Grande Guerra. Trad. Alberto Palazzi. Italia: il glifo ebooks, 27 maggio 2020. 368 p. ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 8897527523; ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-8897527527.

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Just released! Patricia Rigg’s biography of A. Mary F. Robinson

A. Mary F. Robinson Victorian Poet and Modern Woman of Letters By Patricia Rigg
Born in England in 1857, Agnes Mary Frances Robinson contributed to cultural and literar currents from nineteenth-century Victorianism to twentieth-century modernism; she was equally at home in London and Paris and prolific in both English and French. Yet Robinson remains an enigma on many levels. This literary biography integrates Robinson’s unorthodox life with her development as a writer across genres. MORE DETAILS
456 Pages, 6 x 9 | 11 photos | Paperback 9780228008842 | Institutional hardcover 9780228008835 | eBook available
Patricia Rigg is professor of English at Acadia University and the author of Robert Browning’s Romantic Irony in The Ring and the Book and Julia Augusta Webster: Victorian Aestheticism and the Woman Writer.
“This is the most comprehensive study to date on A. Mary F. Robinson. Patricia Rigg should be congratulated for her painstaking, thorough research, which gathers previously unavailable archival material. Rigg gives attention to Robinson’s complete oeuvre in both English and French, offering much new material on her work in French especially, for a richer sense of Robinson’s full career.” Emily Harrington, University of Colorado, Boulder, and author of Second Person Singular: Late Victorian Women Poets and the Bonds of Verse
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The Character-Driven Story in Historical Mysteries: An interview with the author of the John Singer Sargent & Violet Paget Mysteries, Mary F. Burns

The Sibyl is delighted to share with you an interview with one of the members of the International Vernon Lee Society, author Mary F Burns. Mary is the author of several books of historical fiction, and member of and book reviewer for the Historical Novel Society and a former member of the HNS Conference board of directors. She has been a regular panelist and speaker at the North American Historical Novel Society Conference.She lives in San Francisco.

Mary’s John Singer Sargent & Violet Paget mysteries, ‘The Spoils of Avalon’, ‘The Love for Three Oranges’ and ‘The Unicorn in the Mirror’ are available now, on the Kindle Store[S1] 

THE SIBYL: Mary, how did you discover Vernon Lee, and what inspired you to write such vibrant and fun novels about her friendship with John Singer Sargent? 

MARY: About twenty years ago, I wrote a couple of “cozy village” mysteries, literally set in my own ‘village’ of West Portal in San Francisco, with the emphasis on the intricacies of untraceable poisons and evanescent nanotechnology that required significant outlining, planning ahead and scrupulous, detailed planting of clues as well as red herrings—absolutely a requirement if you’re writing a mystery that is plot-driven and complicated. But then I fell in love—with John Singer Sargent (1856-1925) and his friend Violet Paget (1856-1935, aka the writer Vernon Lee). I wrote an historical novel about him and his magnificent and at the time, maligned, portrait of ‘Madame X’, and Violet was a significant character in the story (Portraits of an Artist, 2010). 

Their individual, quirky, wonderful, interesting personalities, combined with their life-long friendship, made such an impression on me that after the novel was finished, their voices and charming ways would not leave my mind. I had read so many letters of theirs, and biographies, and spent hours gazing at Sargent’s paintings and reading Violet’s essays, that these two fascinating people had a hold on me that compelled me to continue writing about them—I wanted everyone to know them as I had come to know them.

So naturally, I turned them into amateur sleuths and started writing a mystery series! Unlike my West Portal cozies, I wanted these new mysteries to primarily portray the characters of these two real-life people whom I loved so much, in addition to being a good mystery, of course. 

THE SIBYL: What made you decide to write about Lee and Sargent as adults, before they had both become so well-known? 

MARY: Having decided this was going to be a series (and in six years I have now written three), I decided to start when John and Violet were both twenty-one. That way, each book would advance a certain amount of time and I would be able to present the changes and development of the young artist and the young writer as they made their way into the upper echelons of their artistic and literary worlds. Thus, the mysteries that came their way to solve—typically a murder—would serve as the catalyst to delve into and reveal their true characters: how they would react and respond to murder and danger, why they would feel compelled to investigate it, and how their friendship and their unconventional upbringings and education would help or hinder their investigations.

THE SIBYL: The choice to narrate the story from Lee’s perspective is fascinating. What made you want to do this? 

MARY: Violet Paget was by far the more pronounced, outgoing, feisty personality of the two, and I chose her voice to tell the stories, in First Person POV. While this has its drawbacks, it makes for a significantly ‘present’ character, as the reader is addressed directly, drawn into her thoughts and fears and doubts, and her sarcastic and irreverent approach to a woman’s life, career and chances of literary success in the late Victorian Age. 

Here is how I introduced the series, in the Prologue in the first book, The Spoils of Avalon: Violet is writing in 1926, the year after her friend John died, an event which she feels gives her permission to now finally relate the interesting tales of murder and mayhem in which they were involved:

‘Sherlock Holmes isn’t the only one who solves mysteries, you know. In our youth, I and my friend Scamps—more formally known as John Singer Sargent—engaged in a fair amount of sleuthing ourselves.’

She goes on to mention that most of the people involved have also passed on, and then continues: 

‘Modesty restrains me from naming the one who wields the Sherlockian mind, but let me just say, Scamps made an excellent Watson.’

I wanted to place Violet, with her keen, curious mind and waspish, often self-deprecatory and humorous commentary, at the center of the reader’s journey in this time and space, and as a foil and contrast to Sargent, whose personality was much more reserved, congenial and mellow. As Violet goes on to explain, 

‘Nonetheless, as a detecting duo, we were extremely well-suited—he was observant with an artist’s eye for detail as well as the nuances of mood and tone, whereas I noticed things out of restless curiosity and, I must say, a suspicious nature attuned to finding fault.’

In the first mystery, it becomes rather obvious after a short time who the murderer is, but events occur so quickly, with rising urgency and threat, that the emphasis on Violet’s and John’s rapid detecting is much more interesting and important—if I do say so myself—than that the killer remain unknown until the very end. The second and third mysteries ‘The Love for Three Oranges’ and ‘The Unicorn in the Mirror’ are rather more complex, partly I think because I’m just getting better at writing mysteries!

THE SIBYL: What kind of research did you do, to bring these characters—these people—back to life? 

MARY: I read so much of these two persons’ actual correspondence that I have been able to get a true sense of how they spoke, not only to each other, but about events of the day, their opinions, their friendships, successes and failures. John often refers to Vi as ‘old man,’ a common jocularity of the youth of the era, both men and women. Nicknames like ‘Scamps’ were also common among familiars. Sargent was known for his awkwardness in speaking, almost stammering at times, especially in more public situations, whereas Violet was voluble and incessantly talkative, as well as clever and opinionated. Henry James referred to her as a ‘formidable conversationalist.’

THE SIBYL: Can you tell us about your writing process? 

MARY: In contrast to my earliest murder mysteries, which were carefully outlined and plotted in advance, my approach to writing about Violet and John’s exploits is more fully organic—once I’ve done the necessary research, I just start writing—their personalities take over pretty quickly, and before I know it, they’re telling me what to write and leading me into all sorts of interesting adventures. I start thinking and feeling like them, especially Violet, and as I work through the investigation along with them, I find out almost at the same time they do, who-done-it and why! Their particular ways of thinking and acting, in their own historical contexts—in short, who they are as persons of their era—have become critical and instrumental elements to solving the murders and crimes they investigate—truly character-driven historical fiction.

THE SIBYL: The novels avoid foregrounding both character’s sexualities, and doesn’t sensationalize their personal relationships. Why did you make this choice? 

MARY: An important element of the lives and personalities of John and Violet was that they were both same-sex oriented; in writing about them I knew that this was a subject that had to be treated with subtlety, for a couple of reasons. First, the self-knowledge of their sexuality would have taken some time, both because of their unusual family lives, insular and peripatetic; and second, because of the mores, strictures and laws of the Victorian Age. Both of them, in later years, were well-acquainted with Oscar Wilde and other notorious gay men of the age—and they saw what happened to him because of his indiscreet behavior. Sargent’s career would have been in ruins if his same-sex inclinations were made public, although as long as men were discreet, nobody cared. Violet, given the separate lives that men and women lived in the Victorian Age, would have had more ‘cover’ for an intimate relationship with a woman friend. The ‘Boston Marriage,’ so-called in the United States, and the necessity of “spinsters” having to live together to make a viable economic household, were too common for anyone to draw anything sexual or ‘Sapphic’ from the occurrence. Neither Violet nor John were in any way religious, but social mores would have inhibited behavior that flaunted such activity.

Nonetheless, it has become clear in the scholarship of the last four decades that Sargent was definitely gay and engaged in physical intimacy with other men, from his own letters (not many of which are extant, as he destroyed much of his correspondence, like Henry James) as well as others’ letters and notes about him. The recent exhibition of drawings at the Isabella Stewart Gardner museum of Sargent’s African-American model Thomas McKellar are revelatory of Sargent’s sexual identity. It is less clear whether Violet engaged physically with any of the women with whom she formed relationships in later life, but she certainly preferred the company of women to that of men as intimate companions. 

This sense of developing self-awareness is built into my characterizations of John and Violet in the mystery series, and I find it is important to interweave their growing consciousnesses into the stories themselves, which becomes more significant in the latest of the mysteries, The Unicorn in the Mirror, when they are both around twenty-six years of age. 

THE SIBYL: What was your reasoning behind your choice to use the name Violet? 

MARY: I think because I begin the timeline in 1879, before Violet was widely known as her non-de-plume Vernon Lee, and because she and Sargent had been friends since they were ten years old, it seemed more plausible that he would call her by her real name. It also allows for an interesting dualism of ‘personality’ by being able to contrast the private Violet Paget with the public Vernon Lee, as well as depict the often humorous situations that occur when people realize they are one and the same person. Finally, it serves as a handy vehicle for commenting (and having Violet comment) on the inequities that women authors had to face at that time.

THE SIBYL: What’s next for you Mary? Are any more mysteries in the works?

MARY: I have just finished the first two chapters of the next mystery, working title ‘The Eleventh Commandment,’ which centers around the scandal of 1885 in London of the ‘Shapira Scrolls,’ ancient texts of the Hebrew Book of Deuteronomy. The Muse forbids me to say more!

Mary’s novel ‘The Spoils of Avalon’ will be on sale as an ebook–99 cents/ 99 pence–from October 6-10. You can find out more about Mary through her website

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Dante Conference in Florence, 1-2 October 2021: Intarsi Danteschi

Dear friends of Vernon Lee and her circle,

this year marks the 700th anniversary of Dante’s death (Ravenna, September 1321). We are delighted to forward the invitation to attend the important Conference held in Florence, where the poet of poets was born in 1265, and whose Inferno was translated by Lee’s half-brother, the poet Eugene Lee-Hamilton, in 1898:

“Vita Nova” e “Comedia” nella cultura anglo-americana dell’Ottocento a Firenze/

Vita Nova” and “Comedia” in 19th century anglo-american culture in Florence

It is organised by the Associazione Culturale Il Palmerino, the British Institute of Florence and the Consiglio Regionale della Toscana and the patronage of Gabinetto G.P. Vieusseux.

The scientific committee: Pr. Serena Cenni, Pr. Elisa Bizzotto, Pr. Sefano-Maria Evangelista.

For information, please contact

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Annual Vernon Lee Lecture of the IVLS : Madeleine Goodall on “The Humanism of Clementina Anstruther-Thomson”

John Singer Sargent, Portrait of Clementina Anstruther-Thomson, 1889

Dear readers,

this year’s annual event will be dedicated to Vernon Lee’s bosom friend and collaborator: the humanist Clementina (“Kit”) Anstruther-Thomson, who passed away a century ago, on July 7th 1921.

We are delighted and honoured to announce that this year’s speaker is Madeleine Goodall, the Heritage Coordinator of Humanists UK. Historian Madeleine Goodall’s research specialises in the history and influence of humanism and freethought. She will lecture on “‘A hundred ways other people wouldn’t’: the humanism of Kit Anstruther-Thomson”.

The lecture is online, and attendance is free to all and open to members and non-members of the IVLS. To get the link from us, please, email

We look forward to meeting you online! Such a pleasure, even though it is only –once again– a virtual meeting!

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Vernon Lee and HoL at ESSE 2021 !

Dans le cadre du 15ème colloque international de l’ESSE (European Society for the Study of English) organisé par l’Université de Lyon et qui se déroulera en ligne du 30 Août au 3 Septembre 2021, la base de données Holographical-Lee (HoL) Vernon Lee (Violet Paget): Letters, notebooks and manuscripts – Lettres, carnets et manuscrits fera l’objet de deux présentations au sein du séminaire Transnational Perspectives in, Transnational Perspectives on European Feminism sous la direction de Isil Bas (Istanbul Kültür University, Turquie) ; Florence Binard (Paris Diderot – Université de Paris) ; Renate Haas (Université de Kiel, Allemagne) ; Maria Socorro Suarez Lafuente (Université d’Oviedo, Espagne).

  • « Challenging national identities : the digital edition of Vernon Lee’s Papers, or reflections in a digital mirror »
  • Sally Blackburn-Daniels (Open University, UK): « Caroline Playne and Vernon Lee : Transnational Feminism, Solidarity, and Pacifism through the Great War Years and across Borders »
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New published work on Vernon Lee

Dear readers,

we are happy to announce the following publication of works on Vernon Lee:

Bronte Schiltz, “‘Mysterious Influences’: Androgyny and Transgressive Sexuality in Vernon Lee’s ‘A Wicked Voice’ and ‘Prince Alberic and the Snake Lady'”. Oindrila Ghosh (ed.) Vision, Contestation and Deception; Interrogating Gender and the Supernatural in Victorian Shorter Fiction. Memari, Burdwan (India): Avenel Press, 2021, 99-120.

We welcome Oindrila Ghosh’s work, signalling Vernon Lee’s success in India!

And we are pleased to announce that Patricia Rigg, A. Mary F. Robinson: Victorian Poet and Modern Woman of Letters will be released 15 September 2021 by McGill-Queen’s University Press.

This is the first literary biography of Robinson in English that examines her entire oeuvre and assesses her impact on the Anglo-French community in England and France. A most important book for all Vernon Lee scholars! For details, please see–mary-f–robinson-products-9780228008842.php?page_id=73&

Please make the Sibyl yours! Send us your announcements of any work connected with Vernon Lee (books, articles, lectures, performances, adaptations…) for insertion here and in the updated Bibliography here or in our database Holographical-Lee (HoL)
Vernon Lee (Violet Paget) : Letters, notebooks and manuscripts – Lettres, carnets et manuscrits

Enjoy your summer time, reading, writing, in a –hopefully– Covid free place!

Best wishes

Sophie Geoffroy

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Mary Robinson’s Copy of ‘Belcaro’ sells at Christie’s Auction

On June 16 2021, an edition of Vernon Lee’s 1881 work Belcaro: Being Essays on Sundry Aesthetical Questions appeared in the lots of Christie’s Women in Art auction with an estimate of EUR 1,600 – EUR 2,000.

The copy had been owned by Mary Robinson and includes a beautiful dedication to the owner by Lee written one year and one day after the visit the pair made to the Castello do Belcaro, Siena.

In recollection of the afternoon at Belcaro December 15. 80

With the love and respect of her Vernon Dec 16. 81.

Vernon Lee, Violet Paget dite (Boulogne-sur-Mer 1856–1935 Florence)Belcaro: Being Essays on Sundry Aesthetical Questions. London : W. Satchell, 1881.

The edition surpassed Christie’s estimate, with a private buyer paying EUR 2,750 for the copy.

Further details can be found on Christie’s website here

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